Rwandan Basketry BIBLIO

the japanese art of Kentsugi
Rwanda on the globe
Rwanda on the globe
(licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported)


 Please, note: what follows is not at all an exhaustive bibliography on Rwanda, as it only reflects my readings: you’ll find the essays/books/articles I’ve fully read with interest and the movies/documentaries/ investigative reports I’ve seen and appreciated.



  • As We Forgive, documentary (53 min), 2014, directed by Laura Waters Hinson. Lang: ENG.
  • Mama Rwanda, documentary (35 min), 2016, directed by Laura Waters Hinson. Lang: ENG.

Very interesting documentaries available on Curiosity Stream, reserved to subscribers only.


  • Shake Hands with the Devil: The journey of Roméo Dallaire – Documentary (1 h:32 min), 2004. Lang: ENG.

Directed by Peter Raymont, this docu was inspired by the book Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda (2003), by now-retired Canadian Lieutenant-General Roméo Dallaire. It was co-produced by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the Société Radio-Canada, White Pine Pictures, and DOC: The Documentary Channel. Dallaire, born in 1946, is now retired senator and Canadian Forces lieutenant-general. As we saw, he served as force commander of UNAMIR, United Nations peacekeeping force for Rwanda between 1993 and 1994. You can see it on YouTube in English. My advice: see it. It’s quite hard, but knowing Dallaire’s point of view is worth any ‘efforts’. Based on Dallaire’s book there’s also a movie: Shake Hands with the Devil, a 2007 Canadian war drama film starring Roy Dupuis as Roméo Dallaire, directed by Roger Spottiswoode, and premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival in August 2007. I can say nothing about, as I did not see it, sorry.


  • Tuez-les tous ! Rwanda : Histoire d’un génocide «sans importance» – Documentary (1h 37 min), France, 2004. Lang: FR

This documentary was realized by Raphaël Glucksmann, David Hazan, and Pierre Mezerette, produced by Michel Hazanavicius et Arnaud Borges, and released on November 2004. From its introduction: «Ce film raconte le dernier génocide du XX siècle. Au Rwanda il ne s’agissait ni de barbaries ancestrales ni d’une soudaine explosion de violence mais d’une histoire politique et moderne. Ces hommes qui massacrent leurs voisins sont avant tout des êtres humaines. Nous avons voulu comprendre ce qui était arrivé à l’humanité dans le collines du Rwanda» (My translation: “This film tells the story of the last genocide of the 20th century. In Rwanda, it was neither ancestral barbarities nor a sudden explosion of violence but a political and modern history. The men who massacred their neighbors are first and foremost human beings. We wanted to understand what had happened to humanity among the Rwandan hills”). On YouTube.


  • El diablo anduvo suelto – En Portada Ruanda – News Story RTVE España (40:47 min), 2014. Lang: ESP.

Directed by José A. Guardiola for RTVE (state-owned public corporation that assumed in 2007 the indirect management of the Spanish public radio and television service), this reportage shows some disturbing scene of the genocide, but it’s well balanced and well informed, especially on the current political situation of Kagame’s Rwanda. Not a trivial docu at all. Available in streaming for free on RTVE.


  • Rwanda: From hatred to reconciliation l Al Jazeera World, New Story, 2015 (47:30 min). Lang: ENG.

The story of the 1994 Rwandan genocide told through the prism of the local print and broadcast media, exploring their role then and today. Directed by filmmaker Sherif Salah. Excellent and interesting: not to be missed! In free streaming on Al Jazeera. On YouTube as well.


  • A Song from Rwanda, by Marco Barbieri, 2010/2016 (23 min). Lang: ENG subtitles

The Italian photographer Marco Barbieri tells some interesting stories related to the Genocide, like that of Zula Karuhimbi from Musamo, Ruhango District. In 1994, during the Genocide, she saved the lives of hundreds of people by hiding them in her home. She confronted the persecutors by exploiting her reputation as a traditional curator, believed to have magical powers. Zula passed away in December 2018 at the age of 104. The docu is on YouTube and on the Barbieri website.


  • Félicien Kabuga: The Financer of the Genocide in Rwanda, by Thomas Zribi, documentary 2020 (48 min). Lang: ENG with different subtitles

This Netflix original documentary, from the World’s Most Wanted series, tells the story of Félicien Kabuga, a Rwandan businessman, likely the richest person of the country at the beginning of the 1990s. He played a major role in the run-up to the Rwandan genocide: he was the main financier of Hutu extremist media outlets, such as the RTLM radio station and Kangura magazine. After the Genocide, he escaped to Switzerland with all of his large family, and later to Congo, Kenya, Germany, and France, where he was finally arrested. He is currently in custody of the IRMCT branch in The Hague, charged of crimes against humanity and genocide.



  • Black Earth Rising, Tv drama series, 8 episodes, 2018. Lang: ENG with different subtitles

Written and directed by Hugo Blick, this series is a co-production between BBC Two and Netflix and is available to the subscribers of this platform. It’s a TV series full of flaws – at times the script is convoluted, there is some sagging of rhythm here and there, the lead actress is magnetic but the writing of her character turns sometimes into melodrama – but is nonetheless one of the best of the last decade. It’s an intelligent fiction that does not mistreat history. On the contrary, it brings to light both the historical-political complexity of the Rwandan genocide and the interweaving of interests and influences that enveloped and in part still gag the country.


  • Rwanda, movie, directed by Riccardo Salvetti, 2018 (90 min). Lang: ITA (no subtitles).

This small independent and awarded film, born from the tenacity of four young Italian filmmakers and financed thanks to a successful crowfunding, is based on the homonymous theatrical show by Marco Cortesi and Mara Moschini, two actors who bring to the stage a true story coming from the Rwandan genocide. The film sees the participation of over 480 extras from 24 countries of Central Africa. Some of the main and secondary characters are Rwandan citizens called to play their real role during the dramatic events of the 1994 Genocide. Available to the subscribers on Amazon Prime Video.


  • 100 Days, drama film directed by Nick Hughes and produced by Hughes and Eric Kabera, 2001 (100 min). Lang: ENG

Eric Kabera is a Rwandan journalist, filmmaker, founder and president of Rwanda Cinema Center. He was born in 1970 in Zaire (now DRC) where he was living during the Jenoside, but 32 members of his family were slaughtered. This 2001 movie, realized in collaboration with the British filmmaker Nick Hughes, employed non-professional actors and many Rwandan survivors, and was shot on the real Rwandan location. The contrast between the breathtaking natural landscapes and the horror of what happen hurt my heart. A movie to be seen, however, for many good reasons, above all because it’s a Rwandan film. You can see it on You Tube.


  • Shooting dogs, movie, 2005, directed by Michael Caton-Jones, UK-Germany (115 min). Lang: ENG

«Shooting Dogs, released in the United States as Beyond the Gates, is a 2005 film, directed by Michael Caton-Jones and starring John Hurt, Hugh Dancy and Clare-Hope Ashitey. It is based on the experiences of BBC news producer David Belton, who worked in Rwanda during the Rwandan genocide. Belton is the film’s co-writer and one of its producers. (…). The film was shot in the original location of the scenes it portrays. Also, many survivors of the massacre were employed as part of the production crew and minor acting roles. The film’s title refers to the actions of UN soldiers in shooting at the stray dogs that scavenged the bodies of the dead. Since the UN soldiers were not allowed to shoot at the Hutu extremists who had caused the deaths in the first place, the shooting of dogs is symbolic of the madness of the situation that the film attempts to capture» (from Shooting Dogs, Wikipedia).

Twarahiriye by RDF Military Band.
The RDF Army Band is the military band of the current Rwanda Defence Forces. It includes four ensembles: HQ/Workshop, Harmony/Arranging, Ceremonial Band, Jazz Band/Vocalist group.
Seeing Rwandan soldiers singing and rapping makes an impression. The song is catchy and not at all trashy, and they are okay. Tremendously okay.


Please note: all links are embedded.


FRANCE – GÉNOCIDE – TUTSI Base de données sur le rôle de la France dans le génocide des Tutsi

Language: French and English

This is one of the best and most complete sources of documents: it’s worth a thorough browsing. Among hundreds of thousands of documents, you can find the following:

Documents triés par date: many remarkable historical document, sorted by year

Archives de la Mission des Nations Unies pour l’Assistance au Rwanda (MINUAR): all of the document by Roméo Dallaire, related to the UNAMIR Missions

Médias de la haine (Hate Media): Kangura, Transcriptions d’émissions de la radio Mille Collines (RTLM), Transcriptions d’émissions de Radio Rwanda

Rôle de l’Église catholique: documents on the Catholic Church in Rwanda since 1916. You’ll find texts by Mgr Classe and Mgr Perraudin, among others.



The following pages are rich in documents and includes the Complete Collection of Peacekeepers’ Situation Reports (SITREPS by UNAMIR) from Rwanda to UN Headquarters in New York — from the Mission’s Inception in October 1993 through the End of the Genocide in July 1994: page The Rwanda Sitreps, page Sitreps Detail Rwanda’s Descent into Genocide 1994, page The Rwanda “Genocide Fax”: What We Know Now.

The page The U.S. and the Genocide in Rwanda 1994 links to many CIA’s and U.S. Department of State’s Reports

The page Warnings of Catastrophe includes French, US, UN, and Belgian Documents foreshadowing the Genocide in Rwanda  and the key Belgian Diplomatic Cables published in English for the first time.

Other interesting pages: Rwanda: The Failure of the Arusha Peace Accords, Inside the UN Security Council: April–July 1994.



The page KANGURA includes the pdf of its original issues, sometimes of a better quality than those available on the France – Génocide – Tutsi French database.


CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY – Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies

The MIGS is Canada’s leading think tank working at the intersection of human rights, conflict and emerging technologies. The institute serves as a leadership and ideas incubator that convenes stakeholders with the goal of developing better policies to protect human rights.

The Rwandan Radio Transcripts page includes the transcripts of hate radio broadcasts by RTLM, Radio Rwanda and Radio Muhabura. The transcripts are available in English, French and Kinyarwanda. The pages are still being developed and more information will be added soon.

Radio Rwanda

Radio Télévision des Milles Collines (RTLM)

Radio Muhabura (Radio Beacon)

In the page of the Kangura Files you can find all issue of the magazine.


UNAMIR page on the Department of Peacekeeping Operations website

On this page you will find:



The Genocide Research Hub by Aegis Trust aims to contribute to building a knowledge society around genocide prevention and peacebuilding policy and practice in Rwanda. This hub was established in 2016 as a global knowledge exchange platform for researchers, policymakers, and practitioners, and is primarily focused on the Rwandan situation, placed in regional and global context.

The LIBRARY contains a collection of quality research papers authored by national and international researchers, resourceful policy briefs, policy documents from different ministries and institutions, Aegis working papers and policy briefs, reports, newspaper articles and audio visual materials.


UNHCR – The UN Refugee Agency

The State of The World’s Refugees 2000: Fifty Years of Humanitarian Action – Chapter 10: The Rwandan genocide and its aftermath, 1 Jan 2000


Mon âme enclavée (‘My enclosed soul’) by Injonge Karangwa.
Injonge Karangwa is a Rwandan, composer, singer and songwriter. After almost a decade of experience designing and implementing global health programs in different African countries, Injonge Karangwa changed field. In addition to music, she aims at contributing to build stronger and more integrated creative industries in Africa, leveraging on the social and economic impact of artists.


United Nations – International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals – Legacy website of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

 International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Case No. ICTR-98-41-T, December 21, 2008


English text, download here.


ICTR, The Prosecutor v. Jean-Paul Akayesu, ICTR-96-4-T, Trial Chamber 1, 2 September 1998; all documents (Trial Judgement, Appeals Chamber Judgement, etc.) available here.

‘AMARIRA Y’UMUGABO’ a project composed, arranged, mixed by Alex Niragira. The project features 3 talented Rwandan musicians from Nyundo School of Music.


  • Mahmood Mamdani (Ugandan Chancellor of Kampala International University; director of the Makerere Institute of Social Research; Professor of Anthropology, Political Science and African Studies at Columbia University)

When Victims Become Killers – Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda – Princeton University Press – Princeton and Oxford, new paperback edition 2020


  • Silvana Arbia (Senior Trial Attorney at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda; Registrar of the International Criminal Court)

Mentre il mondo stava a guardare – Vittime, carnefici e crimini internazionali:  le battaglie di una donna magistrato nel nome della giustizia – Mondadori, Milano (Italy), 2011


  • Sheri P. Rosenberg (Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, New York)

Genocide Is a Process, Not an Event – Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal: Vol. 7: Iss. 1: Article 4, 2012


  • Noam Schimmel (currently Visiting Fellow at the Centre for Human Rights and Legal Pluralism, Faculty of Law, McGill University)

An invisible genocide: how the Western media failed to report the 1994 Rwandan genocide of the Tutsi and why – The International Journal of Human Rights, Vol. 15, Issue 7, 2011


  • Office of The President of The Rwandan Republic

The Unity of Rwandans before the Colonial Period, and under the Colonial Rule and under the First Republic – Kigali, August 1999


  • National Unity and Reconciliation Commission under the supervision of Déo Byanafashe and Paul Rutayisire

History of Rwanda from the Beginning to the End of the 20th Century – Kigali, 2016


  • Paul Rutayisire (Rwandan historian)

Le remodelage de l’espace culturel rwandais par l’Église et la colonisation – Revue d’Histoire de la Shoah 2009/1 (N° 190), pages 83 à 103


  • Yasuko I. Takezawa (Associate Professor, Institute for Research in Humanities, Kyoto University), Audrey Smedley (Professor of Anthropology, Virginia Commonwealth University), Peter Wade (Professor, Department of Social Anthropology, University of Manchester)

Race – Encyclopedia Britannica


  • Anastase Shyaka (Director, Center for Conflict Management at the National University of Rwanda)

The Rwandan Conflict: Origin, Development, Exit Strategies – A Study ordered by The National Unity and Reconciliation Commission – Kigali, 2005


  • Linda Melvern (British investigative journalist)

– A People Betrayed – The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide – Zed Books, London, 2019 ed.

– Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwanda Genocide, Verso Books, London-New York, 2006


  • The Report of the International Panel of Eminent Personalities to Investigate the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda and the Surrounding Events

Rwanda: The Preventable Genocide – African Union, July 2000


  • Charles André (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Neurologia, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil)

Phrenology and the Rwandan Genocide – Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr. 76 (4), Apr 2018


  • Aylward Shorter (Kipalpala Seminary, Tanzania)

Review: Church and State in Rwanda by Ian Linden – The Journal of African History, Vol. 19, No. 4 (1978), pp. 631-633


  • Viret Emmanuel (SciencesPo, Paris)

Rwanda – A Chronology (1867-1994) – Mass Violence & Résistance – Research Network, March 2010, SciencesPo, Paris


  • United Nations

The United Nations Visiting Mission to Trust Territories in East Africa, 1957: Report on Ruanda-Urundi, together with the relevant resolution of the Trusteeship Council dated December 6, 1957 – UN, New York, 1958 – It can be download from this page of the United Nations Digital Library website, in two languages, English and French



The Race Question, 18 July 1950 – It can be downloaded from this page of the UNESDOC Digital Library


  • Antoine Mugesera (Rwandan historian)

Les Dix Commandements des Hutus de Gitera de 1959 face a ceux de Kangura de 1990  – Nouvelle Relève


  • Olivier Mushimire (lecturer at the Kigali Independent University School of Law)

From Kayibanda To Jambo ASBL- Preserving A Covenant With Belgium  – The Pan-African Review, revised on January 2021


  • James Jay Carney (Associate Professor of Theology at the Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska, US)

Rwanda Before  the Genocide – Catholic Politics and Ethnic Discourse in the Late Colonial Era – Oxford University Press, 2014


  • Daniele Scaglione (President of the Amnesty International Italy from 1997 to 2001)

– Rwanda. Istruzioni per un genocidio – Infinito Edizioni, Italy, 2018

– Sul genocidio del Ruanda ci sono ancora molte domande aperte – “Internazionale”, 3 aprile 2017


  • Lieutenant-General Roméo Dallaire with Major Brent Beardsley ( General Dallaire served as force commander of the UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda from July 1993 to September 1994)

Shake Hands with the Devil – The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda – Penguin Random House of Canada Ltd. – Cornerstone, 2003


  • Alison Des Forges (1942/2009, American historian and human rights activist, specializing in the African Great Lakes region and Rwandan history) with the collaboration of the following researchers: Timothy Longman, Michele Wagner, Kirsti Lattu, Eric Gillet, Catherine Choquet, Trish Huddleston, Jemera Rone

Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda – March 1999 by Human Rights Watch, printed in the USA


  • Colette Braeckman (Belgian journalist specializing in Central African politics)

– Belgium’s role in Rwandan genocide – Le Monde Diplomatique, June 2021

– Rwanda, histoire d’un génocide – Éditions Fayard, 1994


  • Commission de recherche sur les Archives Françaises relatives au Rwanda et au Génocide des Tutsi

La France, le Rwanda et le Génocide des tutsi (1990-1994) – Rapport remis au Président de la République le 26 mars 2021

Armand Colin, Paris, 2021. Download here in pdf.


  • Sénat de Belgique – Session de 1997-1998

6 DÉCEMBRE 1997 – Commission d’enquête parlementaire concernant les événements du Rwanda – RAPPORT FAIT AU NOM DE LA COMMISSION D’ENQUÊTE PAR MM. MAHOUX ET VERHOFSTADT

Download here in pdf.


  • Human Rights Watch

– Arming Rwanda – The Arms Trade and Human Rights Abuses in the Rwandan War,  1 January 1994, A601. Download here.

Shattered Lives – Sexual Violence during the Rwandan Genocide and its Aftermath, September 1996. Download here.

Rwanda Lasting Wounds: Consequences of Genocide and War for Rwanda’s Children, by Human Rights Watch, March 2003, Vol. 15, No. 5 (A). Download here.

Shattered Lives, Sexual Violence during the Rwandan Genocide and its Aftermath, edited by Human Rights Watch/Africa Human Rights Watch, Women’s Rights Project, Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme, 1996. Download here.


  • Minorities at Risk Project

Chronology for Hutus in Rwanda,

2004. Download here.


  • Andrew Wallis (Freelance journalist, academic, leading expert in the African Great Lakes Region, especially Rwanda)

– Silent Accomplice: The Untold Story of France’s Role in the Rwandan Genocide London UK, I.B.Tauris Academic Studies, 2006.

– Stepp’d in Blood Akazu and the Architects of the Rwandan Genocide against the Tutsi, Zero Book – John Hunt Publishing, 2019

– Rwanda’s Forgotten Years – Reconsidering the Role and Crimes of Akazu 1973–1993 in Journal of International Peacekeeping, 22, 2018


  • Allan Thompson editor (senior fellow at the Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) and associate professor at Carleton University’s School of Journalism and Communications)

The Media and the Rwanda Genocide

Pluto Press UK & USA – Fountain Publishers Kampala, Uganda – International Development Research Centre, 2007


  • Gregory H. Stanton (former Professor in Genocide Studies at the George Mason University, in Virginia; founder and president of Genocide Watch; founder and director of the Cambodian Genocide Project, and the Chair of the Alliance Against Genocide).

The Ten Stages of Genocide

Genocide Watch, 2019 – Download here.


  • Yves Simon (French singer and writer, born in 1944)

Mémoire d’un génocide, in Libération, 4 juillet 2000. Read here.


  • Narelle Fletcher (University of Technology Sydney, AU)

Words That Can Kill: The Mugesera Speech and the 1994 Tutsi Genocide in Rwanda, in PORTAL Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies 2014, 11(1): 3293. Download here.


  • Roger Bromley (Emeritus Professor of Culture, Film and Media, Faculty of Arts, University of Nottingham, UK)

Beast, Vermin, Insect – Hate Media and the Construction of the Enemy: The Case of Rwanda, 1990 – 1994

In AA.VV., Creating Destruction – Constructing Images of Violence and Genocide, edited by Nancy Billias and Leonhard Praeg, Amsterdam, Rodopi, 2011


  • Susan Benesch (American human rights advocate for Amnesty International and Human Rights First, currently professor at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University, founder of the Dangerous Speech Project)

Inciting Genocide, Pleading Free Speech in World Policy Journal, vol, 21, no, 2, Summer 2004, published by Duke University Press.


  • Timothy P. Longman (Professor of Religion and Politics in Africa at the Boston University, Director of the African Studies Center and of the Institute on Culture, Religion, and World Affairs)

Twenty Years after Leave None to Tell the Story, What Do We Now Know about the Genocide of the Tutsi in Rwanda?, in Journal of Humanitarian Affairs, Volume 2, No. 2 (2020), Manchester University Press


  • Jacques Morel (former researcher of French CNRS, author of relevant essays on the Rwandan Genocide and the involvement of France. His website Pages personnelles de Jacques Morel is rich in interesting documents and papers)

La France au coeur du génocide des Tutsi, 2010, revised in 2017

– Le rôle de Laurent Serubuga dans le génocide des Tutsi, 3 mars 2019, v2.9


  • Bruce D. Jones (Director of The Project on International Order and Strategy at the Brookings Institution, Professor at the Freeman Spogli Institute at Stanford University, chair of the advisory council of the Center on International Cooperation at New York University)

The Arusha Peace Process in Howard Adelman & Astri Suhrke editors, The Path of a Genocide, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Uppsala, Transaction Publishers, US, 1999.


  • Damien Fruchart (former Research Assistant at SIPRI, STOCKHOLM INTERNATIONAL PEACE RESEARCH INSTITUTE, an independent international institute dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament)

United Nations Arms Embargoes – Their Impact on Arms Flows and Target Behaviour – Case study: Rwanda, 1994–present

SIPRI Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 2007


  • Peter Uvin (Professor of International Humanitarian Studies at the Tufts University, Boston; former associate professior at the Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown University, US)

Development Aid and Structural Violence: The case of Rwanda, in Development 42(3), September 1999


  • Christine L. Kellow and H. Leslie Steeves (the latter is associate professor in the School of Journalism and Communication, University of Wisconsin-Madison)

The Role of Radio in the Rwandan Genocide, in Journal of Communication, volume 48, Issue 3, September 1998


  • Helen C. Epstein (Visiting Professor of Global Public Health and Human Rights at Bard College)

America’s secret role in the Rwandan genocide, in The Guardian, 12 Sept. 2017 (download here)


  • André Guichaoua (French professor of Sociology, specializing in the African Great Lakes region, at the University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne and former expert witness for the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda)

– Rwanda: de la guerre au génocide Les politiques criminelles au Rwanda (1990-1994), La Découverte, Paris. 2010

– Rwanda 1994: les politiques du génocide à Butare, Karthala, Paris, 2005


  • Diogène Bideri (Principal Legal Adviser at the Rwandan National Commission for the Fight against Genocide and Chairperson for the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity and all forms of discrimination, International Conference on Great Lakes Region, Bujumbura).

– Le massacre des Bagogwe: Un prélude au génocite des Tutsi, Rwanda (1990-1993), Points de vue, L’Harmattan, Paris, 2008

Le génocide précurseur des Bagogwe, Juin 2003, Fondation Ntarama


  • Florent Piton et Boris Adjemian (Florent Piton is a historian at the Université Paris-Diderot and at the University of Rwanda)

Rwanda: pour une histoire des violences de masse dans la longue durée, in Études arméniennes contemporaines, 11 | 2018, 105-122.


  • Raphaël Doridant and François Graner (Raphaël Doridant est member of the editorial board of Billets d’Afrique, a monthly newsletter on Françafrique published by the association Survie since 1993; François Graner is a member of Survie, a non-governmental founded in 1984 to fight hunger and corruption in the Françafrique, the former colonies of France in Africa).

L’Etat français et le génocide des Tutsis au Rwanda,  Agone/Survie, France, February 2020.


  • Philip Gourevitch (American author and journalist, longtime staff writer for The New Yorker, former editor of The Paris Review)

– We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed with Our Families. Stories from Rwanda, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1st ed, 1999.

–  The Genocide Fax – The United Nations was warned about Rwanda. Did anyone care?, May 3, 1998, The New Yorker 


  • Filip Reyntjens (Professor of African law and politics at the Institute of Development Policy and Management, University of Antwerp)

A Fake Inquiry on a Major Event. Analysis of the Mutsinzi report on the 6th April 1994 attack on the Rwandan Presidential aeroplane, January 2010, IOB Thematic Groups, Institute of Development Policy and Management, University of Antwerp


  • Gérard Prunier (French-Canadian former military, later historian, expert on East African contemporary history and politics, with a particular focus on conflicts. Over the past 30 years he has written 170 articles and 8 books in 4 languages)

– The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide, Columbia University Press, 1996; Hurst & Company London, reviewed, 9th impr. 2019

The Armies of the Great Lakes Countries, PRISM, National Defense University, Volume 6, No. 4, 2017


  • African Rights (African Rights is an NGO dedicated to working on issues of grave human rights abuses, conflict, famine and civil reconstruction in Africa)


– Left to die at ETO and in Nyanza, April 2001 – It can be downloaded here, on the France – Génocide – Tutsi website.


  • Scott Straus (Professor and incoming Chair in the Department of Political Science and Professor of International Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, US)

– The Order of Genocide Race, Power, and War in Rwanda, Cornell University Press,  Ithaca and London, 2008

Rwanda and RTLM Radio Media Effects, a condensed version of Scott Straus, What Is the Relationship between Hate Radio and Violence? Rethinking Rwanda’s “Radio Machete”, in Politics and Society, 35:4 (2007), pp. 609-637.

How many perpetrators were there in the Rwandan genocide? An estimate, Journal of Genocide Research (2004), 6 (1), March, 85–98


  • Human Rights Watch Africa – Project Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme

SHATTERED LIVES Sexual Violence during the Rwandan Genocide and its Aftermath, Human Rights Watch, © September 1996, printed in the US


  • Burnet, Jennie E. (Associate Professor of Anthropology, Director of the Institute for Women’s, Gender and Sexuality Studies at the Georgia State University, US)

Rape as a Weapon of Genocide: Gender, Patriarchy, and Sexual Violence in the Rwandan Genocide, Georgia State University, Anthropology Faculty Publications, 2015


  • Marijke Verpoorten (Institute of Development Policy, University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium)

How Many Died in Rwanda?, Journal of Genocide Research, vol. 22, no.1, 2020


  • René Lemarchand (French-American political scientist who is known for his research on ethnic conflict and genocide in Rwanda, Burundi and Darfur. Retired Professor of Political Science from the University of Florida)

Rwanda: the State of Research, 2018, Science Po, Mass Violence and Resistance – Research Network


  • Omar Shahabudin McDoom (Associate Professor in Comparative Politics at the London School of Economics)

– Contested Counting: Toward a Rigorous Estimate of the Death Toll in the Rwandan Genocide, Journal of Genocide Research, 2019.

– Rwanda’s Ordinary Killers: Interpreting popular participation in the Rwandan Genocide, Crisis States Research Centre, Working Paper, 2005


  • Jens Meierhenrich (Professor of International Relations, and Director of the Centre for International Studies at the London School of Economics)

How Many Victims Were There in the Rwandan Genocide? A Statistical Debate, Journal of Genocide Research, 22:1, 2020


  • Jean-Paul Kimonyo (Regional Director for the Levy Mwanawasa Centre for Democracy and Good Governance, co-founder of the Centre for Conflict Management at the National University of Rwanda)

– Rwanda’s Popular Genocide – A Perfect Storm, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder, Colorado, US / London, UK, 2016

Bystanders to the Rwandan Conflict & Genocide: Current state of research, in collaboration with Christopher Kayumba, Report for the The Living History, Sweden, Kigali, Rwanda, 2008


  • Ervin Staub (Professor of Psychology at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. He has taught at Harvard University, Stanford University, the University of Hawaii, and the London School of Economics)

The Psychology of Good and Evil  Why Children, Adults, and Groups Help and Harm Others, Cambridge University Press, 2003.


  • Leila Gupta (UNICEF Rwanda)

UNICEF Trauma Recovery Programme, Exposure to War-Related Violence Among Rwandan Children and Adolescents: A Brief Report on the National Baseline Trauma Survey, February 1996


  • Door Bert Ingelaere (Professor at the University of Antwerp)

Inside Rwanda’s Gacaca Courts: Seeking Justice After Genocide, The University of Wisconsin Press, 2016

The Gacaca courts in Rwanda, in Vv. Aa., Traditional Justice and Reconciliation after Violent Conflict – Learning from African Experiences, International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, Sweden, 2008


  • Jennie E. Burnet (sociocultural anthropologist, professor of Anthropology and director of the Institute for Women’s, Gender and Sexuality Studies at Georgia State University in Atlanta, US)

Rape as a Weapon of Genocide: Gender, Patriarchy, and Sexual Violence in the Rwandan Genocide, Anthropology Faculty Publications, 13, 2015.


  • Andy Storey (Centre for Development Studies, School of Politics and International Relations, University College Dublin, Ireland)

Structural violence and the struggle for state power in Rwanda, Accord, AJCR 2012/3


  • George Kent (Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science at the University of Hawai’i, US)

Structural Violence, in John Y. Jones, Experiments with Peace : Celebrating Peace on Johan Galtung’s 80th Birthday, edited by Jorgen Johansen, Pambazuka Press, 2011.


Clarisse Karasira – Ibikomere
Clarisse Karasira is a Rwandan singer, songwriter, poet. Born in 1997 and raised in Kigali, Clarisse at the age of 17 started working as a radio presenter intern at Radio Ishingiro; n 2017, she was hired by one of the biggest media houses in Rwanda, Flash FM/ Flash TV where she served as a news anchor on both radio and TV. Toward the end of 2018, Clarisse resigned from this work to pursue a full-time career in music. She was awarded the Rwanda best female artist of the year in  2019. She’s also a children’s rights advocate, famous for her humanitarian commitment.


  • Leopold Mbereyaho and Josephine Malonza

Architecture, building design and construction in Rwanda

Paper presented during the Conference organized by Oscar Von Muller Forum (Germany- Munich), on 15th April 2010.

Kigali Institute of Science and Technology (KIST)


  • Yaëlle Biro (Department of Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas, The Met)

Tutsi Basketry

In “Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History”, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2011


  • Célestin Kanimba Misago (director of the National Museum of Rwanda) and Thierry Mesas

Artisanat au Rwanda – La Vannerie

Éditions Sépia, Saint Maur, September 2001


  • Vanessa Drake Moraga

The artistry of the Tutsi basket. Fiber Art from the Great Lakes Region of Central Africa

Catalogue 2019, Andres Moraga Textile Art, Berkeley, CA, US


  • Karenzi Eugene, et al.

Kivuguto traditional fermented milk and the dairy industry in Rwanda. A review

Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment, January 2013


  • Karangwa Isaie, Rutikanga Emmanuel, and Philip Fry

Of Milk Pots and Cattle Keepers Style and Role Changes of the Inkongoro in Nyagatare District, Rwanda

African Arts, Winter 2018, Vol. 51, No. 4


  • Jennifer Gaugler

Modern Materials for Dwelling: The Evolution of Durability and Domesticity in Rwandan Housing

TDSR, Vol. X X I X, No. 11, 2018, 39.


  • P. M. Pauwels

Les couleurs et les dessins au Ruanda

Anthropos Bd. 47, H. 3./4. (May – Aug., 1952), pp. 474-482


  • Smith Pierre

Aspects de l’esthétique au Rwanda.

L’Homme, 1985, tome 25 n. 96. pp. 7-22


Alyx Becerra




Did you inherit from your aunt a tribal mask, a stool, a vase, a rug, an ethnic item you don’t know what it is?

Did you find in a trunk an ethnic mysterious item you don’t even know how to describe?

Would you like to know if it’s worth something or is a worthless souvenir?

Would you like to know what it is exactly and if / how / where you might sell it?